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Alfresco is a Free/Libre enterprise content management system for Microsoft Windows and Unix-like operating systems. Alfresco comes in two flavours.  Alfresco Community Edition is free software, LGPL licensed open source and open standards. Alfresco Enterprise Edition is commercially & proprietary licensed open source, open standards and enterprise scale. Its design is geared towards users who require a high degree of modularity and scalable performance. Alfresco includes a content repository, an out-of-the-box web portal framework for managing and using standard portal content, a CIFS interface that provides file system compatibility on Microsoft Windows and Unix-like operating systems, a web content management system capable of virtualizing webapps and static sites via Apache Tomcat, Lucene indexing, and Activiti workflow. The Alfresco system is developed using Java technology.

John Newton (co-founder of Documentum) and John Powell (a former COO of Business Objects) founded Alfresco Software, Inc. in 2005. Its investors include the investment firms SAP Ventures, Accel Partners and Mayfield Fund. The original technical staff consisted of principal engineers from Documentum and from Oracle.

While Alfresco's product initially focused on document management, in May 2006 the company announced its intention to expand into web content management by acquiring senior technical and managerial staff from Interwoven; this included its VP of Web Content Management, two principal engineers, and a member of its user-interface team. In 2007 Alfresco hired the principal sales engineer from Vignette.

In October, 2009, the 2009 Open Source CMS Market Share Report described Alfresco as a leading Java-based open source web content management system.

In 2010, Alfresco sponsored a new open-source BPM engine called Activiti.

In July 2011, Alfresco and Ephesoft announced a technology partnership to offer their users document capture and Content Management Interoperability Services brought together for intelligent PDF capture and search and workflow development.